Saturday, September 15, 2012

Learning Through Accessing The World Wide Web

"No significant learning occurs without a significant relationship."
- Dr. James Comer PhD, Yale University 

I just saw this quote while I was browsing through the net to find what best suite for my blog about what I've learned in making or involving in edublogging. This quote means when you don't apply or understand what you've learned or what other people teach you will be just a piece of information that pass to your life that is meaningless. Its like a wind that just pass through your body. In learning you should always know the importance of what you will learn in acquiring the knowledge you receive. You should always think critically in everything or every time in your life, for you to become alert and responsive on what your doing and in every decision you will make. From the information you've learn from reading books and from the teachings of the teachers you will acquire such knowledge that you can use in your everyday life. And it will be beneficial for you if you will learn the knowledge you acquire by heart. If the teacher knew that his/her student is applying in his/her everyday life, the feeling of the teacher then is heart warming for his/her student because the teacher's effort in teaching his/her student is such a worth that he/she accomplish. 

Its like this semester I've enroll this school year (1st Sem, 2012-2013), there are so many things I've learned because I absorb and understand what my teachers have teach me. I learned so many things because I choose to think critically, acquire and apply the things my teachers have taught me. A very good example is from my teacher in Clinical Chemistry 3, my belove teacher Mrs. Virginia Gaces, who taught us how this edublogging is all about and what are the benefits we can get from it. At first I think that edublogging is not that connecting to our subject clinical chemistry because for me when I heard the word edublogging, it is all about writing. But my perception is wrong, it is all about writing, writing what you've learned and learning from the subject, summarizing it in a one simple concept or perception that you can get the information easily. 

An edublog is a blog created for educational purposes. Edublogs archive and support student and teacher learning by facilitating reflection, questioning by self and others, collaboration and by providing contexts for engaging in higher-order thinking.

Edublogs proliferated when blogging architecture became more simplified and teachers perceived the instructional potential of blogs as an online resource. The use of blogs has become popular in education institutions including public schools and colleges.

Blogs can be useful tools for sharing information and tips among co-workers, providing information for students, or keeping in contact with parents. Common examples include blogs written by or for teachers, blogs maintained for the purpose of classroom instruction, or blogs written about educational policy. Educators who blog are sometimes called edubloggers. Edublogging is making of the edublogs.

For me, edublogging is like sharing to the world or to those people who need and getting information in the internet. To share what you’ve learned from school or from the books you’ve read in the library or any kind of journal that would give new information to you and to everybody that would be very useful in their everyday lives.

Edublooging is also a way for a person to learn how to write his/her own words in understanding the topic he/she is presenting to the public or he/she is about to post in the World Wide Web. Knowing his/her perception to the topic by his/her own words will represent her idea about the topic and how to make a understandable and more simple concept of the topic for the readers of his/her blog to understand better what is the topic or the post is all about.

I've learned many things in doing and involving in this edublogging like summarizing many information I acquire from books and lectures and writing through you own words its all about words and expressing what you have learned by your own perception. Writing or doing words in a paragraph thing is not my forte, I'm not good in it because I don't know what or how to construct words and have a meaningful concept at the end of the words to write. 
     Edubloggings also keep information that we can use as a student or persons who are needing relative information by only surfing the internet. It can be so much useful for those who are not fond of reading books rather they just turn on the computer and log in the internet world. 

Acquiring new knowledge in life is a step in a better living in life. A new knowledge is acquired and should maintained, because you'll never know that this new acquired knowledge is very useful to you and to all the persons that surrounds you. Thank you to our beloved teacher, Mrs. Virginia Gaces, who teach and introduce us how to do and work on edubloggings. Making edublogs is such a useful tool for all the people who have access in the world wide web and for me who don't have any chance of writing what are my perception are. It did help me to have a courage to write because my greatest fear in academics is writing about anything. Thank you po Mam Gaces!!!   

Sunday, July 29, 2012



Let’s face it, people nowadays die not because of old age, but because of certain degenerative diseases or in a more simple term --- the lifestyle diseases. This should not shock anyone. We are struggling to survive in our incredibly polluted environment.

In these days, it is quite impossible to avoid toxins, radiations, stress, smokes and other chemicals that damage our body and reduce its vitality. These stressors have probably been here since the very beginning of man-kind. Science is continuously innovating, that then introduced toxicology to all the people in different places. 


Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. The irresistible advancement of these studies let the people be aware of anything that have a potential risk. It then provides us management and prevention aiding us out in longevity of our lives.

What we did in our past life will manifest in the future.  Instances like unhealthy diet because those who were fund of eating fries, burgers, pizzas, junk foods which contain higher level of salts than the recommended amount are related to cardiovascular risks, also, consumption of saturated fats and trans fatty acids may be linked to heart diseases.

Under Construction

There is also the harmful use of alcohol. We are aware that there is an increasing mortality rate from cancer, cardiovascular diseases and liver cirrhosis. Another is tobacco smoking or any other pollution and harmful airborne substances that in turn increase respiratory ailments. Alcohol and cigarette/tobacco smoking are the most substance abuse now a days.
head and torso of a male with internal organs shown and labels referring to the effects of tobacco smoking

Likewise, insufficient physical activities or the so-called sedentary lifestyle could greatly contribute to a number of health issues like obesity, diabetes, heart diseases and worst being disabled due to stroke.

However, most times lifestyle diseases do refer to those conditions that could be prevented if behavior was changed. There are various indications to recommend that diseases have decreased when enough studies occur.

We need detoxification as more often as possible. Lifestyle diseases seems like they're part of human existence. They're unavoidable; it is like every now and then I perceived something new we consume or do is causing an illness. All substances are toxic under the right conditions, as it has been considered. We avoid one unhealthy habit only to move to another that later will manifest to a disease.

Metabolic detoxification is a complex process involving a chain of chemical reactions that occur primarly within the liver and kidneys:
  • Phase I (Functionalization): Enzymes secreted by the liver break down toxins into modified, highly reactive molecules. (Ironically, a by product of functionalization is the creation of free radicals, molecules that can wreak cellular damage if not quickly neutralized.)
  • Phase II (Conjugation): Chemicals such as the amino acid gluthathione produced by the liver bind with the modified toxins, neutralizing them and making them more water soluble.
  • Transport: Proteins deliver the neutralized toxins to the kidneys, where they are excreted via urine; or the gastrointestinal tract, where they are excreted via stool.
Optimal metabolic detoxification helps the body cleanse itself of harmful substances before they can accumulate in tissue and affect health. But factors such as toxic overload, genetic predisposition, and insufficient levels of keys nutrients can impair this process, increasing a person's susceptibility to toxicity-related diseases.


Clinical Toxicology: (Hospital Setting) 
  • Deal with emergencies such as overdoses, poisonings, attempted siucides
  • Compound identification and qualification
  • Sign and Symptom management
  • Emergency care--home poisoning
  • Poison control

Forensic Toxicology: (Medical Examiner's Office)

  • Medical-legal aspects of poisonings
  • Identification and quantification of poisons
  • Establish relationship between tissue residual level and probable cause of death
Industrial Toxicology:

  • Estimation of worker safety based on 8hr work day, 40hr work week
  • Engineering of safety measures
  • Air sampling, worker sampling
Environmental Toxicology:

  • Effects of compounds on water, wildlife
  • Movement of chemicals in the environment--soil, air, water
  • Residual life of chemicals in the environment
Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology:

  • Determining mode of action of chemicals at the molecular level
  • Effect of chemicals on DNA, cancer genes....
Product and Development Toxicology: (Corporate Setting)

  • Service and pre-clinical toxicology for product development
  • Evaluation of full toxic potential of chemicals destined for drug abuse
  • Establish safe doses for people
Regulatory Toxicology: (Industry and Government Setting)

  • Deciphers and analyzes toxicological data for risk estimation
  • Solvent vapor thresholds in industry
  • Safe level for human drugs
  • Safe level of heavy metals in water
  • Safe levels of pesticides


Tuesday, May 15, 2012

Studying Endocrinology

 As girls and boys enter puberty, they start to develop striking differences in physical appearance and behavior. This is due to the endocrine system.

Video1. Introduction to the Endocrine System and how does it works.


Endocrinology deals with the study of hormones, the glands that produce them and the tissues which are affected by the hormones. The diseases and conditions associated with hormonal imbalance, damage to the glands that make hormones or the use of artificial or natural hormonal drugs and the treatment to these diseases and conditions are also part in studying endocrinology.

endocrine system Anatomy and Physiology: Endocrine System
Figure1. The Endocrine System
Endocrine system is a facility group of glands. Glands are the organs that makes hormones. Hormones helps to control activities in your body. 

The nervous and endocrine systems act together to coordinate functions of all body systems. Responses of the endocrine system often slower than responses of the nervous system; although some hormones act within seconds, most takes several minutes or more to cause a response. The effects of nervous system activation are generally briefer than those of the endocrine system. The nervous system acts on specific muscles and glands. The influence of the endocrine system is much broader; it helps regulate almost all types of body cells. 

Hormones are chemical messengers that transmit information to cells. It has different types that control reproduction, metabolism - like food burning and waste elimination, and growth and development. They control the way we respond to our surroundings, and they help to provide the proper amount of energy and nutrition our body needs to function. the glands that make up the endocrine system and produces the hormones are pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes and  adrenal.   

Figure2. Hormones 
Most hormones are one of two chemical types:

  • Peptide-amino acid molecules are water soluble and have relatively short half-lives. These molecules circulate in solution in plasma.
  • Steroid-cholesterol molecules have longer half-lives and in some cases transported in the circulation by carrier proteins.
Mechanisms of hormone action:
  • Peptide-amino acid hormones or non-steroidal hormones are usually work at the cell surface, binding to receptors that signal changes in cytoplasmic reactions and processes that result in the hormone's effects.
  • Steroid-cholesterol hormones and thyroid hormones have their effect in the cell nucleus, where they modify the DNA transcription, this modification results changes in protein synthesis which brings the hormonal effect.

These are glands that make the endocrine system: hypothalamus and pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, and ovaries and testes.

Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

Pituitary gland or hypophysis is called the master endocrine gland/ master gland because it secretes several hormones that control other endocrine glands. This pituitary gland itself has a master and that is the Hypothalamus. This small region of the brain below the thalamus is the major link between the nervous system and endocrine system. Together, these hormones play important roles in the regulation of almost all aspects of growth, development, metabolism and homeostasis.

Table1. Anterior and Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Anterior and Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Hormone and Target Tissues
Principal Actions
Human Growth Hormone (hGH)  /  Somatotropin ----- Liver                                                       
Stimulates liver and other tissues to synthesize and secrete insulinlike growth factors (IGF); IGF promotes growth of body cells, protein synthesis, tissue repair, lipolysis, and elevation of blood glucose concentration
Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) / Thyrotropin ----- Thyroid Gland
Stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland
Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) ----- Ovaries and Testes
In females, initiates development of oocytes and includes ovarian secretion of estrogens.
In males, stimulates testes to produce sperm.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) ----- Ovaries and Testes
In females, stimulates secretion of estrogens and progesterone, ovulation and formation of corpus luteum.
In males, stimulates testes to produce testosterone.
Prolactin (PRL) ----- Mammary Glands
Together with the other hormones, promotes milk secretion by the mammary glands
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) / Corticotropin ----- Adrenal Cortex
Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol) by the adrenal cortex
Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH) ----- Brain
Exact role in humans is unknown but may influence brain activity; when present in excess, can cause darkening of skin
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Oxytocin (OT) ----- Uterus and Mammary Glands
Stimulates contraction of smooth muscle cells of the uterus during childbirth.
Stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cells in the mammary glands to cause milk ejection.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) / Vasopressin ----- Kidneys, Arterioles and Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands
Conserves body water by decreasing urine volume. Raises blood pressure by constricting arterioles.
Decreases water loss through perspiration.

Figure3. Anatomy of the Pituitary Gland
Thyroid Gland

Regulates your energy and your metabolism.

Table2. Thyroid Gland Hormones
Thyroid Gland Hormones
Hormone and Source
Principal Actions
T3 (Triiodothyronine) and T4 (Thyroxine) ----- Follicular cells
Increase basal metabolic rate, stimulate synthesis of proteins, increase use of glucose and fatty acids for ATP production, increase lipolysis, enhance cholesterol excretion, accelerate body growth, and contribute to development of the nervous system.
Calcitonin (CT) ----- Parafollicular cells
Lowers blood levels of Ca2+ and HPO42- by inhibiting bone resorption by osteoclasts and by accelerating uptake of calcium and phosphates into bone extracellular matrix. 

Picture of the Thyroid Gland
Figure4. Anatomy of the Thyroid Gland
Parathyroid Gland

Secretes the hormone necessary for calcium absorption.

Table3. Parathyroid Gland Hormones
Parathyroid Gland Hormones
Hormone and Source
Principal Actions
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) ----- Chief cells
Increases blood Ca2+ and Mg2+ levels and decreases blood HPO42level; increases bone resorption by osteoclasts; increases Ca2reabsorption and HPO42excretion by kidneys; and promotes formation of calcitriol – active form of vit. D, which increases rate of dietary Ca2+ and Mg2absorption.

Parathyroid diagram
Figure5. Parathyroid Gland
Adrenal Gland

Secretes hundreds of compounds including cortisone & adrenaline which helps you react to emergencies. Regulates your metabolic processes in the cells, water balance, blood pressure, etc.

Table4. Adrenal Gland Hormones 
Adrenal Gland Hormones
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Hormone and Source
Principal Actions
Mineralocorticoids (mainly Aldosterone) ----- Zona Glomerulosa cells
Increase blood levels of Na+ and water and decrease blood level of K+
Glucocorticoids (mainly Cortisol) ----- Zona Fasciculata cells
Increase protein breakdown (except liver), stimulate gluconeogenesis and lipolysis, provide resistance to stress, reduce inflammation and depress immune responses
Androgens (mainly Dehydroepiandrosterone / DHEA) ----- Zona Reticularis cells
Assist in early growth of axillary and pubic hair in both sexes; in females, contribute to libido and are source of estrogens after menopause
Adrenal Medulla Hormones
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine ----- Chromaffin cells
Produce effects that enhance those of the sympathetic division of the automatic nervous system (ANS) during stress

adrenal gland
Figure6. Anatomy of the Adrenal Gland

Aids in the digestion of protein, fats and carbohydrates. Produces insulin which controls blood sugar levels.

Table5. Pancreatic Islet Hormones
Pancreatic Islet Hormones
Hormone and Source
Principle Actions
Glucagon ----- Alpha cells of pancreatic islets
Raises blood glucose level by accelerating breakdown of glycogen into glucose in liver (glycogenolysis), converting other nutrients into glucose in liver (gluconeogenesis) and releasing glucose into the blood
Insulin ----- Beta cells of pancreatic islets
Lowers blood glucose level by accelerating transport of glucose into cells, converting glucose into glycogen (glycogenesis) and decreasing gylcogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
Somatostanin ----- Delta cells of pancreatic islets
Inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon and slows absorption of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract
Pancreatic Polypeptide ----- F cells of pancreatic islets
Inhibits somatostanin secretion, gall bladder contraction and secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes

diagram of the pancreas
Figure7. Dissection of the pancreas showing the pancreatic duct leading into the duodenum. The section at the top right shows an islet of Langerhans where hormones are secreted.

Ovaries and Testes

Influences how your blood circulates and determines your mental vigor and your sex drive.

Table6. Ovaries and Testes Hormones
Ovaries Hormones
Hormone and Source
Principle Actions
Estrogens and Progesterone
Together with gonadotropic hormones of the anterior pituitary, regulate the female reproductive cycle, regulate oogenesis, maintain pregnancy, prepare the mammary glands for lactation and promote development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics
Increases flexibility of pubic symphysis during pregnancy and helps expand uterine cervix during labor and delivery
Inhibits secretion of FSH from anterior pituitary
Testes Hormones
Stimulates descent of the testes before birth, regulates spermatogenesis and promotes development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
Inhibits secretion of FSH from anterior pituitary

Figure8. Anatomy of the Gonads - Ovaries anr Testes

This is not the end of the work of the endocrine system. There are lots of things to learn about endocrinology. And also the diseases or disorders are not yet mention above. This is just a glimpse of the endocrine system of our body. Follow my blog for more information or for more sharing of knowledge about the effects and abnormalities of the endocrine system and endocrinology-the study of hormones inside our body.